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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing p20-29

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing p20-29

An important characteristic of narcotic analgesics is that users developtoleranceto them. Tolerance means that the same dose of the drug will produce diminishing effects, or that a steadily larger dose is needed to produce the same effects. A tolerant user who has taken his or her normal dose of heroin (for example), may exhibit little or no evidence of physical impairment.

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Indicators of Narcotic Analgesic Influence

  • On the nod
  • Droopy eyelids
  • Depressed reflexes
  • Dry mouth
  • Facial itching
  • Low, raspy speech
  • Fresh puncture marks may be evident

1 29

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

General indicators of Narcotic Analgesic influence:

  • On the nod
  • Droopy eyelids
  • Depressed reflexes
  • Dry mouth
  • Facial itching
  • Low, raspy speech
  • Fresh puncture marks may be evident Eye indicators of Narcotic Analgesic influence:
  • Neither horizontal nor vertical nystagmus will be present

HS 178 R5/13 21 of 29

Pupils generally will be constricted

Notes:_______________________________________________

Inhalants

Inhalants are breathable chemicals that produce mind-altering results.

Inhalants include many familiar household materials, such as glue (Toluene), paint, gasoline, aerosol sprays, etc. that produce volatile fumes. Some drugs that are classified as Inhalants include:

  • Glue (i.e., model airplane glue, Toluene)
  • Paint
  • Gasoline
  • Aerosol sprays (i.e., vegetable frying pan lubricants, hair sprays, insecticides)
  • Nitrous Oxide
  • Ether
  • Amyl Nitrate Certain anesthetics also may be used as inhalants.

HS 178 R5/13 22 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Indicators of Inhalant Influence

  • Disorientation
  • Slurred speech
  • Residue of substance on face, hands, clothing
  • Confusion
  • Possible nausea

1 31

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

General indicators of Inhalant influence:

  • Disorientation
  • Slurred speech
  • Residue of substance on face, hands, clothing
  • Confusion
  • Possible nausea Eye indicators of Inhalant influence:
  • Horizontal gaze nystagmus generally will be present.
  • Vertical nystagmus may be present (especially with high doses).
  • Pupil size generally will not be effected.

HS 178 R5/13 23 of 29

  • Marijuana
  • Hashish
  • Hash oil
  • Synthetic THC (Marinol or Dronabinol)
  • Synthetic cannabinoid products (Spice, K2, JWH-18, etc.)

Cannabis products generally are smoked, although they also can be ingested orally.

HS 178 R5/13 24 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Indicators of Cannabis Influence

  • Marked reddening of the Conjunctiva (white part of the eyeball)
  • Body tremors
  • Odor of marijuana
  • Disoriented
  • Relaxed inhibitions

Difficulty in dividing attention

1 33

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

General Indicators of Cannabis Influence:

  • Marked reddening of the Conjunctiva (white part of the eyeball)
  • Body tremors
  • Odor of marijuana
  • Disoriented
  • Relaxed inhibitions
  • Difficulty in dividing attention Eye indicators of Cannabis Influence:
  • Neither horizontal nor vertical nystagmus will be present
  • Pupil size generally will be dilated, but also may not be effected

HS 178 R5/13 25 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Combinations of Drugs

  • Poly derives from the Greek word for many
  • In the Los Angeles Field Study (1985), 81 of the 173 suspects (47%) in the Los Angeles Field Study had alcohol in combination with one or more other drugs

1 34

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

D.Combinations of Drugs

Many drug users routinely ingest drugs from two or more drug categories at the same time.

The term for this condition is polydrug use.

In the Los Angeles Field Study (1985), 72% of the suspects had two or more drugs in them. In that study, alcohol was often found in combination with one or more other drugs. But even if we discount alcohol, nearly half (45%) of the Field Study suspects had two

or more other drugs in them.

HS 178 R5/13 26 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Common Combinations of Drugs

  • Alcohol and some other drug
  • PCP and Cannabis
  • Cocaine and Heroin

Notes:_______________________________________________

1 35

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Common Combinations of Drugs

  • Alcohol and some other drug is the most frequent combination
  • PCP and Cannabis is another common combination

Cocaine and Heroin is another common combination

Because polydrug use is so common, you should not be surprised to encounter subjects who are under the influence of more than one category of drugs.

  • At some times and places polydrug users may be more common than single drug users.
  • Be especially alert to the possibility that subjects who have been drinking alcohol may also have ingested some other drug or drugs.

The effects of polydrug use may vary widely, depending on exactly what combination of drugs is involved, how ingested and when they were ingested.

HS 178 R5/13 27 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Possible Effects of Drug Combinations

  • Null
  • Overlapping
  • Additive
  • Antagonistic

1 36

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Any particular combination of drugs may produce four general kinds of effects:

  • Null: Neither drug has an effect on the indicator.
  • Overlapping: Each drug may effect the subject in some different way. In combination, both effects may appear.
  • Additive: The two drugs may independently produce some similar effects. In combination, these effects may be enhanced.
  • Antagonistic: The two drugs may produce some effects that are exactly opposite. In combination, these effects may mask each other.
  • Example of Antagonistic Effect: A CNS Stimulant usually causes pupil dilation. A narcotic usually causes pupil constriction. It is possible that someone who is simultaneously under the influence of a stimulant and narcotic may have pupils that are nearly normal in size. It is also possible that the pupils will change as the effects of one drug diminishes while the other increases.

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Dealing With Suspected Drug Influence or Medical Impairment

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

HS 178 R5/13 28 of 29

Notes:_______________________________________________

Although this course is not designed to qualify you as a DRE, it is intended to make you more knowledgeable when encountering drivers impaired by substances other than alcohol.

HS 178 R5/13 29 of 29


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