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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing p11-20

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing p11-20

Drug Categories and Their Observable Effects

  • Central Nervous System Depressants
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Hallucinogens
  • Dissociative Anesthetics
  • Narcotic Analgesics
  • Inhalants
  • Cannabis

1 18

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

C.Drug Categories and Their Observable Effects

Seven Categories of Drugs

Definition of Drug: Any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely.

Within this simple, enforcement-oriented definition, there are seven categories of drugs:

  • Central Nervous System Depressants
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Hallucinogens
  • Dissociative Anesthetics
  • Narcotic Analgesics
  • Inhalants
  • Cannabis

HS 178 R5/13 11 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants

  • Alcohol
  • Barbiturates (Secobarbital)
  • Non barbiturates (GHB/Soma)
  • Anti-Anxiety Tranquilizers(Valium/Xanax)
  • Anti-Depressants (Prozac/Elavil)
  • Muscle relaxants

Notes:_______________________________________________

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants

CNS Depressants slow down the operations of the brain, and usually depress the heartbeat, respiration, and many other processes controlled by the brain. The most familiar CNS Depressant is alcohol. Other CNS Depressants include:

  • Barbiturates (such as Secobarbital (Seconal), and Pentobarbital (Luminal))
  • Non-Barbiturates (GHB-gamma-hydroxybutyrate and Soma)
  • Anti-Anxiety Tranquilizers (Such as Valium, Librium, Xanax, and Rohpynol)
  • Anti-Depressants (such as Prozac and Elavil)
  • Muscle relaxants and many other drugs (Soma) CNS Depressants usually are taken orally, in the form of pills, capsules, liquids, etc. In general, people under the influence of any CNS Depressant look and act like people

under the influence of alcohol.

HS 178 R5/13 12 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Indicators of CNS Depressant Influence

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

General indicators of CNS Depressant influence are:

  • Drunken behavior and appearance
  • Uncoordinated
  • Drowsy
  • Sluggish
  • Disoriented
  • Thick, slurred speech Eye indicators of CNS Depressant influence are:
  • Horizontal gaze nystagmus usually will be present
  • Vertical nystagmus may be present (with high doses)
  • Pupil size usually will not be effected, except that Methaqualone and Soma may cause pupil dilation

HS 178 R5/13 13 of 29

Notes:_______________________________________________

Central Nervous System Stimulants

Central Nervous System Stimulants accelerate the heart rate, respiration and many

other processes of the body. The two most widely abused kinds of CNS Stimulants are cocaine and methamphetamines.

Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca plant. Methamphetamines are chemically produced (manufactured) drugs. Cocaine abusers may take the drug:

  • By snorting
  • By smoking (freebase, or Crack)
  • By injection
  • Orally Abusers of amphetamines may take their drugs:
  • By injection
  • Orally
  • By snorting
  • Smoked (i.e., ice)

HS 178 R5/13 14 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Indicators of CNS Stimulant Influence

  • People under the influence of CNS Stimulants tend to be hyperactive, indicated by nervousness, extreme talkativeness and an inability to sit still
  • They also are usually unable to concentrate, or to think clearly for any length of time

1 22

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

General indicators of CNS Stimulant influence:

People under the influence of CNS Stimulants tend to be hyperactive, indicated by nervousness, extreme talkativeness and an inability to sit still. They also are usually unable to concentrate, or to think clearly for any length of time.

  • Restlessness
  • Talkative
  • Excitation
  • Euphoria
  • Exaggerated reflexes
  • Loss of appetite
  • Anxiety
  • Grinding teeth (bruxism)
  • Redness to nasal area (if snorting)
  • Body tremors Eye indicators of CNS Stimulant Influence:
  • Neither horizontal nor vertical nystagmus will be observed
  • The pupils generally will be dilated.

HS 178 R5/13 15 of 29

Notes:_______________________________________________

Halluci

  • Peyote
  • Salvia Div
  • LSD
  • MDMA (Ecstasy)

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 1 23

Hallucinogens

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect a persons perceptions, sensations, thinking, self-

awareness and emotions. One common type of hallucination caused by these drugs is called synesthesia, which means a transposing of the senses.

Sounds for example, may be transposed into sights. Sights, for example, may be transposed into odors or sounds. Some hallucinogenic drugs come from natural sources:

  • Peyote is an hallucinogen found in a particular specie of cactus.
  • Psilocybin is an hallucinogen found in a number of species of mushroom. Other hallucinogens are synthetically manufactured:
  • LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)
  • MDA (3, 4-Methylene-dioxyamphetamine)
  • MDMA (Ecstasy)
  • Many others

HS 178 R5/13 16 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Indicators of Hallucinogen Influence

  • HallucinationsDisorientation
  • Dazed appearanceParanoia
  • Body tremorsDifficulty in speech
  • UncoordinatedNausea
  • PerspiringPiloerection (goose bumps)

1 24

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

General indicators of hallucinogen influence:

Hallucinogen abusers usually take their drugs orally; however, some hallucinogens can be smoked, or injected or snorted.

  • Hallucinations
  • Dazed appearance
  • Body tremors
  • Uncoordinated
  • Perspiring
  • Disorientation
  • Paranoia
  • Difficulty in speech
  • Nausea
  • Piloerection (goose bumps) Eye indicators of hallucinogen influence:
  • Neither horizontal nor vertical nystagmus should be present
  • The pupils usually will be noticeably dilated

HS 178 R5/13 17 of 29

Notes:_______________________________________________

Dissociative Anesthetics is the category of drugs that includes PCP, its various analogs, and Dextromethorphan (DXM).

PCP is a synthetic drug that was first developed as an intravenous anesthetic.

Because PCP produces very undesirable side effects, it is no longer legally manufactured. However, an analog (chemical cousin) Ketamine is still being legally manufactured and available.

However, it is easy to manufacture:

  • The formula for making PCP and PCP analogs have been widely publicized.
  • The manufacturing process involves readily available chemicals.

Many Dissociative Anesthetic users smoke the drug, by using it to adulterate tobacco, marijuana, or various other substances. Dissociative Anesthetics can also be taken orally or by injection, or inhaled.

HS 178 R5/13 18 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Indicators of Dissociative Anesthetic Influence

  • Warm to the touch
  • Perspiring
  • Blank stare
  • Repetitive speech
  • Incomplete verbal responses
  • Confused
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Possibly violent & combative

1 26

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

General Indicators of Dissociative Anesthetics: Dissociative Anesthetics cans also be taken orally or by injection, or inhaled.

  • Warm to the touch
  • Perspiring
  • Blank stare
  • Repetitive speech
  • Incomplete verbal responses
  • Confused
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Possibly violent & combative Eye Indicators of Dissociative Anesthetic influence:
  • Horizontal gaze nystagmus generally will be present, often with very early onset and very distinct jerking.
  • Vertical nystagmus generally will be present.
  • Pupil Size usually will not be affected.

HS 178 R5/13 19 of 29

SessionOverview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Narcotic Analgesics

  • Heroin
  • Morphine
  • Codeine
  • Synthetic Opiates (e.g., Demerol, Methadone, Fentanyl)

1 27

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Narcotic Analgesics

Narcotic Analgesics include a large number of drugs that share three important characteristics:

  • They will relieve pain.
  • They will produce withdrawal signs and symptoms, when the drug is stopped after chronic administration.

They will suppress the withdrawal signs and symptoms of chronic morphine administration.

Some drugs classified as Narcotic Analgesics are natural derivatives of opium:

  • Heroin
  • Morphine
  • Codeine Some are synthetic narcotic analgesics, such as:
  • Demerol
  • Methadone
  • Numorphan
  • Fentanyl
  • OxyContin


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