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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing p1-10

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

March 2013 Edition

Participant Guide

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing (SFST) Participant Guide Table of Contents

May 2013 Curriculum

Acknowledgements

Preface

Session 0: Introduction to Drugged Driving

Session 1: Introduction to DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing Glossary of Terms

Session 2: Detection and General Deterrence

Session 3: The Legal Environment

Session 4: Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Session 5: Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Session 6: Phase Two: Personal Contact

Session 7: Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Session 8: Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Session 9: Test Battery Demonstrations

Session 10: Dry Run Practice Session

Session 11: Testing Subjects Practice: First Session Sample Dry Erase Board Array for Tabulating Results Sample Field Arrest Log

Session 11A: Video Workshop: First Session

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Session 12: Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial Trial Tips and Techniques Specific DWI Trial Recommendations Sample DWI Incident Report

Session 13: Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Session 14: Testing Subjects Practice: Second Session Sample Dry Erase Board Array for Tabulating Results SFST Field Arrest Log

Session 14A: Video Workshop: Second Session Session 15: Review and Proficiency Exams Participant Proficiency Examination SFST Battery Session 16: Written Examination and Program Conclusion

2

Acknowledgements

The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and the National HighwayTraffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) would like to thank the followingindividuals for their contributions in updating and revising the 2013 SFSTcurricula.

Jonlee Anderle, Laramie, WY Police Department Kyle Clark, Institute of Police Technology and Management Don Decker, Nahant MA Police Department Ernie Floegel, International Association of Chiefs of Police Evan Graham, Royal Canadian Mounted Police Chuck Hayes, International Association of Chiefs of Police Mike Iwai, Oregon State Police Jim Maisano, Norman, OK Police Department Pam McCaskill, DOT Transportation Safety Institute, Oklahoma City, OK Bill OLeary, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Kimberly Overton, North Carolina Conference of District Attorneys Doug Paquette, New York State Police James Roy, Colchester, VT Police Department

Rev. 05/13

PREFACE

The Standardized Field Sobriety Testing (SFST) training prepares police officers and other qualified persons to administer and interpret the results of the SFST battery. This training under the auspices and direction of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has experienced remarkable success in detecting and apprehending intoxicated drivers since its inception in the 1980s.

As in any educational training program, an instruction manual is considered a living document that is subject to updates and changes based on advances in research technology and science. A thorough review is made of information by the Drug Evaluation Classification Program (DECP) Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) of the Highway Safety Committee of the IACP with contributions from many sources in health care science, toxicology, jurisprudence, and law enforcement. Based on this information, any appropriate revisions and modifications in background theory, facts, examination and decision making methods are made to improve the quality of the instruction as well as the standardization of guidelines for the implementation of the SFST Training Curriculum. The reorganized manuals are then prepared and disseminated, both domestically and internationally.

Changes will take effect 90 days after approval by the TAP, unless otherwise specified or when so designated by NHTSA/IACP or the DEC Program state coordinator.

SFST Introduction to Drugged Driving

Session Overview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Learning Objectives

  • Define the term drug in the context ofDWI enforcement
  • Describe the incidence of druginvolvement in motor vehicle crashes and DWI enforcement
  • Name the categories of drugs

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 1 2

At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to:

  • Define the term drug in the context of DWI enforcement
  • Describe in approximate, quantitative terms the incidence of drug involvement in motor vehicle crashes and in DWI enforcement
  • Name the categories of drugs

Session Overview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Learning Objectives (Cont.)

  • Describe the observable signs ofimpairment usually associated with the major drug categories
  • Describe medical conditions and other situations that can produce similar signs of impairment
  • Describe appropriate procedures fordealing with drug impaired or medicallyimpaired suspects

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Learning Objectives (Cont.)

  • Describe the observable signs usually associated with the drug categories
  • Describe medical conditions and other situations that can produce similar signs
  • Describe appropriate procedures for dealing with drugimpaired or medically impaired suspects.
  • Overview Instructor Led Presentations
  • Eye Examinations: Detecting Signs of Participant Practice Drug Influence
  • Drug Categories and Their Observable Effects
  • Combination of Drugs
  • Dealing with Suspected Drug Influence or Medical Impairment

CONTENT SEGMENTS LEARNING ACTIVITIES

HS 178 R5/13 1 of 29

Session Overview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Session Purpose

Improve your ability to recognize suspects who may be medically impaired or impaired by drugs other than alcohol and, when you encounter such suspects, take appropriate action

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

A. Overview

  • The purpose of this session is to improve your ability to recognize suspects who may be medically impaired or impaired by drugs other than alcohol and, when you encounter such suspects, take appropriate action.
  • Alcohol certainly remains the most frequently abused drug, and most impaired drivers are under the influence of alcohol
  • Many other drugs also are routinely abused by many drivers.
  • It is highly likely that every experienced DWI enforcement officer has encountered at least some drivers who were under the influence of drugs other than alcohol.
  • Depending upon the specific types of drugs they have taken, some drug-impaired drivers may look and act quite a bit like persons who are under the influence of alcohol, but others will look and act very differently from alcohol-impaired drivers.
  • It is important that you be able to recognize subjects who may be under the influence of other drugs, so that you will know when to summon assistance from physicians or other appropriate persons, or trained drug recognition experts. (DREs)

HS 178 R5/13 2 of 29

Session Overview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

This Training Will NOT

Important issue this training will NOT qualify you to perform the functions of a Drug Recognition Expert

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

One important thing that this session will not accomplish: it will NOT qualify you to perform functions of a Drug Recognition Expert (DRE).

Officers become DREs only after they have completed a very challenging program that includes nine days of classroom training and many weeks of closely-supervised on-thejob training. (Two-Day Pre-School followed by Seven-Day classroom training.)

Session Overview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

What is a Drug?

Working Definition of Drug:

Any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Definition of Drug

  • The word drug is used in many different ways, by many different people.

The corner druggist and the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration are both concerned with drugs, but they dont have exactly the same thing in mind when they use that word, and neither the druggist nor the DEA have the same perspective as the DWI enforcement officer.

For our purposes, a drug: is:

  • Any substance when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely.
  • This definition excludes some substances that physicians consider to be drugs.
  • This definition includes some substances that physicians dont usually think of as drugs.

HS 178 R5/13 3 of 29

Session Overview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

How Many People Use Drugs?

  • Because many drugs are illegally manufactured, sold and consumed, it is difficult to determine how many people actually use the various drugs
  • All available information shows that drug use and abuse are widespread among large segments of the American public

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

How many people use drugs?

  • Because many drugs are illegally manufactured, sold and consumed, it is difficult to determine how many people actually use the various drugs.
  • All available information shows that drug use and abuse are widespread among large segments of the American public.

Session Overview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings

  • 8.7% of the population aged 12 years or older were current illicit drug users
  • Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug
  • 6.7 million people were users ofpsychotherapeutic drugs taken non medically
  • Estimated 1.4 million persons werecurrent Cocaine users

18

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings

  • In 2011, 8.7% of the population aged 12 years or older were current illicit drug users.
  • Marijuana was the most commonly used illicit drug in 2011, with 18.1 million users.
  • In 2011, 6.7 million people were users of psychotherapeutic drugs taken non medically
  • In 2011, an estimated 1.4 million persons were current Cocaine users

Source: Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings

HS 178 R5/13 4 of 29

Notes:_______________________________________________

B. Eye Examinations: Detecting Signs of Dug Influence

The eyes disclose some of the clearest signs of drug impairment or medical conditions.

  • Horizontal gaze nystagmus is a very clear indication, in subjects eyes, of possible alcohol impairment.
  • There are a number of drugs, other than alcohol, that will cause horizontal gaze nystagmus.
  • There are a number of other drugs that will not cause horizontal gaze nystagmus.
  • There are many other clues that the eyes will disclose, all of which will suggest the presence or absence of drugs or medical impairment.

HS 178 R5/13 5 of 29

Session Overview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Eye Examinations Overview

The eye examinations that you can conduct to assess possible drug or medical impairment include:

  • Resting nystagmus
  • Tracking ability
  • Pupil size
  • Horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN)
  • Vertical gaze nystagmus (VGN)

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Eye Examinations Overview:

The eye examinations that you can conduct to assess possible drug or medical impairment include:

  • Resting nystagmus
  • Tracking ability
  • Pupil size
  • Horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN)
  • Vertical gaze nystagmus (VGN)

Resting Nystagmus is referred to as jerking as the eyes look straight ahead. This condition is not frequently seen. Its presence usually indicates a pathological disorder or high doses of a Dissociative Anesthetic drug such as PCP.

Tracking Ability will be affected by certain categories of drugs, and also by certain medical conditions or pathological disorders.

If the two eyes do not track together, the possibility of a medical condition or injury is present.

By passing a stimulus across both eyes, you can check to see if both eyes are tracking equally.

HS 178 R5/13 6 of 29

Session Overview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Eye Examinations Overview (Cont.)

Tracking ability will be affected by certain categories of drugs, and also by certain medical conditions or pathological disorders

Notes:_______________________________________________

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Tracking Ability will be affected by certain categories of drugs, and also by certain medical conditions or pathological disorders.

If the two eyes do not track together, the possibility of a medical condition or injury is present.

By passing a stimulus across both eyes, you can check to see if both eyes are tracking equally.

If they dont (i.e., if one eye tracks the stimulus, but the other fails to move, or lags behind the stimulus) there is the possibility of a pathological disorder.

If a person has sight in both eyes, but the eyes fail to track together, there is a possibility that the person is suffering from an injury or illness.

HS 178 R5/13 7 of 29

  • CNS stimulants
  • Hallucinogens
  • Cannabis

Session Overview Introduction to Drugged Driving

Notes:_______________________________________________

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN)

The Test of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) for subjects is identical to the HGN test for alcohol-impaired subjects.

  • First Clue: lack of smooth pursuit
  • Second clue: distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation
  • Third clue: onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

1 15

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

The test of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) for subjects is identical to the HGN test for alcohol-impaired subjects.

  • First Clue: Lack of smooth pursuit
  • Second clue: Distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation

Third clue: Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

If the eyes track equally, but jerk while they are moving, then the possible presence of three categories of drugs should be noted:

  • Central Nervous System Depressants
  • Dissociative Anesthetics
  • Inhalants

Sometimes, PCP-impaired subjects will exhibit resting nystagmus, i.e., the eyes jerk while they are looking straight ahead.

Notes:_______________________________________________

Vertical Nystagmus

The Vertical Nystagmus test is very simple to administer.

  • Position the stimulus horizontally. Approximately 12-15 inches (30-38 cm) in front of the subjects nose.
  • Instruct the subject to hold their head still, and follow the stimulus with the eyes only.
  • Raise the stimulus until the subjects eyes are elevated as far as possible, hold for a minimum of four seconds.
  • Watch closely for evidence of jerking (up and down).

Vertical Nystagmus may be present in subjects under the influence of CNS depressants or inhalants.



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