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Standardized Field Sobriety Testing HS 178 R5/13 23 of 24

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

March 2013 Edition

HS 178 R5/13 23 of 24

Definitions

BLOOD PRESSURE

The force exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries. Blood pressure changes continuously, as the heart cycles between contraction and expansion.

BRADYCARDIA

Abnormally slow heart rate; pulse rate below the normal range.

BRADYPNEA

Abnormally slow rate of breathing.

BRUXISM

Grinding the teeth. This behavior is often seen in person who are under the

influence of cocaine or other CNS Stimulants.

CANNABIS

This is the drug category that includes marijuana. Marijuana comes primarily from the leaves of certain species of Cannabis plants that grow readily all over the temperate zones of the earth. Hashish is another drug in this category, and is made from dried and pressed resin of a marijuana plant. The active ingredient in both Marijuana and Hashish is a chemical called delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, usually abbreviated THC.

This is the drug category that includes Mari

CARBOXY THC

A metabolite of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol).

CHEYNE-STOKES RESPIRATION

Abnormal pattern of breathing.Marked by breathlessness and deep, fast breathing.

CLUE -Something that leads to the solution of a problem.

CNS (Central Nervous System) A system within the body consisting of the brain, the brain stem, and the spinal cord.

CNS DEPRESSANTS

One of the seven drug categories.CNS Depressants include alcohol,

barbiturates, anti-anxiety tranquilizers, and numerous other drugs.

CNS STIMULANTS

One of the seven drug categories.CNS Stimulants include Cocaine, the

Amphetamines, Ritalin, Preludin, and numerous other drugs.

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CONJUNCTIVITIS

An inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids caused by infection, allergy, or outside factors.May be bacterial or viral. Persons suffering from conjunctivitis may show symptoms in one eye only. This condition is commonly referred to as pink eye, a condition that could be mistaken for the bloodshot eyes produced by alcohol or Cannabis.

CONVERGENCE

The crossing of the eyes that occurs when a person is able to focus on a stimulus as it is pushed slowly toward the bridge of their nose. (See, also, Lack of Convergence.)

CRACK/ROCK

Cocaine base, appears as a hard chunk form resembling pebbles or small rocks. It produces a very intense, but relatively short duration high.

CUE -A reminder or prompting as a signal to do something. A suggestion or a hint.

CURRICULUM VITAE

A written summary of a persons education, training, experience, noteworthy

achievements and other relevant information about a particular topic.

CYCLIC BEHAVIOR

A manifestation of impairment due to certain drugs, in which the suspect alternates between periods (or cycles) of intense agitation and relative calm. Cyclic behavior, for example, sometimes will be observed in persons under the influence of PCP.

DELIRIUM

A brief state characterized by incoherent excitement, confused speech,

restlessness, and possible hallucinations.

DENDRITE

The part of a neuron (nerve cell) that receives a neurotransmitter.

DIACETYL MORPHINE

The chemical name for Heroin.

DIASTOLIC

The lowest value of blood pressure. The blood pressure reaches its diastolic value when the heart is fully expanded, or relaxed (Diastole).

DIPLOPIA

Double vision.

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DISSOCIATIVE ANESTHETICS

One of the seven drug categories. Includes drugs that inhibits pain by cutting off or disassociating the brains perception of pain.PCP and its analogs are considered Dissociative Anesthetics.

DIVIDED ATTENTION

Concentrating on more than one thing at a time. The four psychophysical tests used by DREs require the suspect to divide attention.

DIVIDED ATTENTION TEST

A test which requires the subject to concentrate on both mental and physical tasks at the same time.

DOWNSIDE EFFECT

An effect that may occur when the body reacts to the presence of a drug by producing hormones or neurotransmitters to counteract the effects of the drug consumed.

DRUG

Any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely.

DWI/DUI

The acronym DWI means driving while impaired and is synonymous with the acronym DUI, driving under the influence or other acronyms used to denote impaired driving.These terms refer to any and all offenses involving the operation of vehicles by persons under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs.

DWI DETECTION PROCESS

The entire process of identifying and gathering evidence to determine whether or not a subject should be arrested for a DWI violation. The DWI detection process has three phases:

1. Phase One -Vehicle In Motion

2. Phase Two -Personal Contact

3. Phase Three -Pre-arrest Screening

DYSARTHIA Slurred speech. Difficult, poorly articulated speech.

DYSPNEA et. al. Shortness of breath.

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DYSMETRIA

An abnormal condition that prevents the affected person from properly estimating distances linked to muscular movements.

DYSPHORIA

A disorder of mood. Feelings of depression and anguish.

EFFERENT NERVES

See: Motor Nerves.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The network of glands that do not have ducts and other structures. They secrete hormones into the blood stream to affect a number of functions in the body.

EVIDENCE

Any means by which some alleged fact that has been submitted to investigation may either be established or disproved. Evidence of a DWI violation may be of various types:

  • Physical (or real) evidence:something tangible, visible, or audible.
  • Well established facts (judicial notice).
  • Demonstrative evidence:demonstrations performed in the courtroom.
  • Written matter or documentation.
  • Testimony.

EXPERT WITNESS

A person skilled in some art, trade, science or profession, having knowledge of matters not within knowledge of persons of average education, learning and experience, may assist a jury in arriving at a verdict by expressing an opinion on a state of facts shown by the evidence and based upon his or her special knowledge.(NOTE: Only the court can determine whether a witness is qualified to testify as an expert.)

FIELD SOBRIETY TEST

Any one of several roadside tests that can be used to determine whether a subject is impaired.

FLASHBACK

A vivid recollection of a portion of an hallucinogenic experience. Essentially, it is a very intense daydream. There are three types:(1) emotional --feelings of panic, fear, etc.; (2) somatic --altered body sensations, tremors, dizziness, etc.; and (3) perceptual --distortions of vision, hearing, smell, etc.

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GARRULITY

Chatter, rambling or pointless speech. Talkative.

HALLUCINATION

A sensory experience of something that does not exist outside the mind, e.g., seeing, hearing, smelling, or feeling something that isnt really there.Also, having a distorted sensory perception, so that things appear differently than they are.

HALLUCINOGENS

One of the seven drug categories. Hallucinogens include LSD, MDMA, Peyote, Psilocybin, and numerous other drugs.

HASHISH

A form of cannabis made from the dried and pressed resin of a marijuana plant.

HASH OIL

Sometimes referred to as marijuana oil it is a highly concentrated syrup-like oil extracted from marijuana. It is normally produced by soaking marijuana in a container of solvent, such as acetone or alcohol for several hours and after the solvent has evaporated, a thick syrup-like oil is produced with a higher THC content.

HEROIN

A powerful and widely-abused narcotic analgesic that is chemically derived from morphine. The chemical, or generic name of heroin is diacetyl morphine.

HIPPUS

A rhythmic change in the pupil size of the eyes, as they dilate and constrict when observed in darkness independent of changes in light intensity, accommodation (focusing), or other forms of sensory stimulation.Normally only observed with specialized equipment.

HOMEOSTASIS

The dynamic balance, or steady state, involving levels of salts, water, sugars, and other materials in the bodys fluids.

HORIZONTAL GAZE NYSTAGMUS (HGN)

Involuntary jerking of the eyes occurring as the eyes gaze to the side. The first test administered in the SFST battery.

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HORMONES

Chemicals produced by the bodys endocrine system that are carried through the blood stream to the target organ. They exert great influence on the growth and development of the individual, and that aid in the regulation of numerous body processes.

HYDROXY THC

A metabolite of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol).

HYPERFLEXIA

Exaggerated or over extended motions.

HYPERGLYCEMIA

Excess sugar in the blood.

HYPERPNEA

A deep, rapid or labored breathing.

HYPERPYREXIA

Extremely high body temperature.

HYPERREFLEXIA

A neurological condition marked by increased reflex reactions.

HYPERTENSION

Abnormally high blood pressure. Do not confuse this with hypotension.

HYPOGLYCEMIA

An abnormal decrease of blood sugar levels.

HYPOPNEA

Shallow or slow breathing.

HYPOTENSION

Abnormally low blood pressure. Do not confuse this with hypertension.

HYPOTHERMIA

Decreased body temperature.

ICE

A crystalline form of methamphetamine that produces a very intense and fairly long-lasting high.

ILLEGAL PER SE

Unlawful in and of itself.Used to describe a law which makes it illegal to drive while having a statutorily prohibited Blood Alcohol Concentration.

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INHALANTS

One of the seven drug categories. The inhalants include volatile solvents (such as glue and gasoline), aerosols (such as hair spray and insecticides) and anesthetic gases (such as nitrous oxide).

INSUFFLATION

See snorting.

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

The skin and accessory structures, hair and nails.Functions include protection, maintenance of body temperature, excretion of waste, and sensory perceptions.

INTRAOCULAR

Within the eyeball.

KOROTKOFF SOUNDS

A series of distinct sounds produced by blood passing through an artery, as the external pressure on the artery drops from the systolic value to the diastolic value.

LACK OF CONVERGENCE

The inability of a persons eyes to converge, or cross as the person attempts to focus on a stimulus as it is pushed slowly toward the bridge of his or her nose.

MARIJUANA

Common term for the Cannabis Sativa plant.Usually refers to the dried leaves of the plant. This is the most common form of the cannabis category.

MARINOL

A drug containing a synthetic form of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Marinol belongs to the cannabis category of drugs, but marinol is not produced from any species of cannabis plant.

METABOLISM

The sum of all chemical processes that take place in the body as they relate to the movements of nutrients in the blood after digestion, resulting in growth, energy, release of wastes, and other body functions. The process by which the body, using oxygen, enzymes and other internal chemicals, breaks down ingested substances such as food and drugs so they may be consumed and eliminated.Metabolism takes place in two phases. The first step is the constructive phase (anabolism) where smaller molecules are converted to larger molecules. The second steps is the destructive phase (catabolism) where large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules.

HS 178 R5/13 16 of 24

METABOLITE

A chemical product, formed by the reaction of a drug with oxygen and/or other substances in the body.

MIOSIS

Abnormally constricted pupils.

MOTOR NERVES

Nerves that carry messages away from the brain, to be bodys muscles, tissues, and organs.Motor nerves are also known as efferent nerves.

MUSCULAR HYPERTONICITY

Rigid muscle tone.

MYDRIASIS

Abnormally dilated pupils.

NARCOTIC ANALGESICS

One of the seven drug categories. Narcotic analgesics include opium, the natural alkaloids of opium (such as morphine, codeine and thebaine), the derivatives of opium (such as heroin, dilaudid, oxycodone and percodan), and the synthetic narcotics (such as demerol and numorphan).

NERVE

A cord-like fiber that carries messages either to or from the brain. For drug evaluation and classification purposes, a nerve can be pictured as a series of wire-like segments, with small spaces or gaps between the segments.

NEURON

A nerve cell. The basic functional unit of a nerve.It contains a nucleus within a cell body with one or more axons and dendrites.

NEUROTRANSMITTER

Chemicals that pass from the axon of one nerve cell to the dendrite of the next cell, and that carry messages across the gap between the two nerve cells.

NULL EFFECT

One mechanism of polydrug interaction.For a particular indicator of impairment, two drugs produce a null effect if neither of them affects that indicator.For example, PCP does not affect pupil size, and alcohol does not affect pupil size. The combination of PCP and alcohol produces a null effect on pupil size.

HS 178 R5/13 17 of 24

NYSTAGMUS

An involuntary jerking of the eyes.

ONE LEG STAND (OLS)

A divided attention field sobriety test. The third test administered in the SFST battery.

ON THE NOD

A semi-conscious state of deep relaxation. Typically induced by impairment due to Heroin or other narcotic analgesic. The suspects eyelids droop, and chin rests on the chest.Suspect may appear to be asleep, but can be easily aroused and will respond to questions.

OVERLAPPING EFFECT

One mechanism of polydrug interaction.For a particular indicator of impairment, two drugs produce an overlapping effect if one of them affects the indicator but the other doesnt.For example, cocaine dilates pupils while alcohol doesnt affect pupil size.The combination of cocaine and alcohol produces an overlapping effect on pupil size:the combination will cause the pupils to dilate.

PALLOR

An abnormal paleness or lack of color in the skin.

PARANOIA

Mental disorder characterized delusions and the projection of personal conflicts, that are ascribed to the supposed hostility of others.

PARAPHERNALIA

Drug paraphernalia are the various kinds of tools and other equipment used to store, transport or ingest a drug. Hypodermic needles, small pipes, bent spoons, etc., are examples of drug paraphernalia. The singular form of the word is paraphernalium.For example, one hypodermic needle would be called a drug paraphernalium.

PARASYMPATHETIC NERVE

An autonomic nerve that commands the body to relax and to carry out tranquil activities.The brain uses parasympathetic nerves to send at ease commands to the muscles, tissues, and organs.

PARASYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS

Drugs that mimic neurotransmitter associated with the parasympathetic nerves. These drugs artificially cause the transmission of messages that produce lower blood pressure, drowsiness, etc.

HS 178 R5/13 18 of 24

PDR (Physicians Desk Reference)

A basic reference source for drug recognition experts. The PDR provides detailed information on the physical appearance and psychoactive effects of licitly-manufactured drugs.

PERSONAL CONTACT

The second phase in the DWI detection process.In this phase the officer observes and interviews the driver face to face; determines whether to ask the driver to step from the vehicle; and observes the drivers exit and walk from the vehicle.

PHENCYCLIDINE

A contraction of PHENYL CYCLOHEXYL PIPERIDINE, or PCP.Formerly used as a surgical anesthetic, however, it has no current legitimate medical use in humans.

PHENYL CYCLOHEXYL PIPERIDINE (PCP)

Often called phencyclidine or PCP, it is a specific drug belonging to the Dissociative Anesthetics category.

PHYSIOLOGY

Physiology is the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of life or living matter and the physical and chemical phenomena involved.

PILOERECTION

Literally, hair standing up, or goose bumps. This condition of the skin is often observed in persons who are under the influence of LSD.

POLY DRUG USE

Ingesting drugs from two or more drug categories.

PRE-ARREST SCREENING

The third phase in the DWI detection process.In this phase the officer administers field sobriety tests to determine whether there is probable cause to arrest the driver for DWI, and administers or arranges for a preliminary breath test.

PRELIMINARY BREATH TEST (PBT)

A pre-arrest breath test administered during investigation of a possible DWI violator to obtain an indication of the persons blood alcohol concentration.

HS 178 R5/13 19 of 24

PROBABLE CAUSE

It is more than mere suspicion; facts and circumstances within the officers knowledge, and of which he or she has reasonably trustworthy information, are sufficient to warrant a person of reasonable caution to believe that an offense has been or is being committed.

PSYCHEDELIC

A mental state characterized by a profound sense of intensified or altered sensory perception sometimes accompanied by hallucinations.

PSYCHOPHYSICAL TESTS

Methods of investigating the mental (psycho-) and physical characteristics of a person suspected of alcohol or drug impairment.Most psychophysical tests employ the concept of divided attention to assess a suspects impairment.

PSYCHOTOGENIC

Literally, creating psychosis or giving birth to insanity.A drug is considered to be psychotogenic if persons who are under the influence of the drug become insane, and remain so after the drug wears off.

PSYCHOTOMIMETIC

Literally, mimicking psychosis or impersonating insanity.A drug is considered to be psychotomimetic if persons who are under the influence of the drug look and act insane while they are under the influence.

PTOSIS

Droopy eyelids.

PULSE

The expansion and relaxation of the walls of an artery, caused by the surging flow of blood.

PULSE RATE

The number of expansions of an artery per minute.

PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEX

The pupils of the eyes will constrict and dilate depending on changes in lighting.

PUPILLARY UNREST

The continuous, irregular change in the size of the pupils that may be observed under room or steady light conditions.

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REASONABLE SUSPICION

Less than probable cause but more than mere suspicion; exists when an officer, in light of his or her training and experience, reasonably believes and can articulate that criminal activity is taking, has taken or is about to take place.

REBOUND DILATION

A period of pupillary constriction followed by a period of pupillary dilation where the pupil steadily increases in size and does not return to its original constricted size.

RESTING NYSTAGMUS

Jerking of the eyes as they look straight ahead.

SCLERA

A dense white fibrous membrane that, with the cornea, forms the external covering of the eyeball (i.e., the white part of the eye).

SENSORY NERVES

Nerves that carry messages to the brain, from the various parts of the body, including notably the sense organs(eyes, ears, etc.). Sensory nerves are also known as afferent nerves.

SINSEMILLA

The unpollenated female cannabis plant, having a relatively high concentration of THC.

STANDARDIZED FIELD SOBRIETY TESTING (SFST)

Standardized Field Sobriety Testing. There are three SFSTs, namely Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN), Walk and Turn, and One Leg Stand. Based on a series of controlled laboratory studies, scientifically validated clues of alcohol impairment have been identified for each of these three tests. They are the only Standardized Field Sobriety Tests for which validated clues have been identified.

SNORTING

One method of ingesting certain drugs. Snorting requires that the drug be in powdered form. The user rapidly draws the drug up into the nostril, usually via a paper or glass tube. Snorting is also known as insufflation.

SPHYGMOMANOMETER

A medical device used to measure blood pressure.It consists of an arm or leg cuff with an air bag attached to a tube and a bulb for pumping air into the bag, and a gauge for showing the amount of air pressure being pressed against the artery.

HS 178 R5/13 21 of 24

STETHOSCOPE

A medical instrument used, for drug evaluation and classification purposes, to listen to the sounds produced by blood passing through an artery.

SYMPATHETIC NERVE

An autonomic nerve that commands the body to react in response to excitement, stress, fear, etc. The brain uses sympathetic nerves to send wake up calls and fire alarms to the muscles, tissues and organs.

SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS

Drugs that mimic the neurotransmitter associated with the sympathetic nerves. These drugs artificially cause the transmission of messages that produce elevated blood pressure, dilated pupils, etc.

SYNAPSE (or Synaptic Gap)

The gap or space between two neurons (nerve cells).

SYNESTHESIA

A sensory perception disorder, in which an input via one sense is perceived by the brain as an input via another sense. In its simplest terms, it is a transposition of senses. For example, seeing a particular sight may cause the user to perceive a sound.

SYSTOLIC

The highest value of blood pressure. The blood pressure reaches its systolic value when the heart is fully contracted (systole), and blood is sent surging into the arteries.

TACHYCARDIA

Abnormally rapid heart rate; pulse rate above the normal range.

TACHYPNEA

Abnormally rapid rate of breathing.

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) The principal psychoactive ingredient in drugs belonging to the cannabis category.

TIDAL BREATH

Breath from the upper part of the lungs and mouth.

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TOLERANCE

An adjustment of the drug users body and brain to the repeated presence of the drug.As tolerance develops, the user will experience diminishing psychoactive effects from the same dose of the drug.As a result, the user typically will steadily increase the dose he or she takes, in an effort to achieve the same psychoactive effect.

TRACKS

Scar tissue usually produced by repeated injection of drugs, via hypodermic needle, along a segment of a vein.

TRAFFIC SAFETY RESOURCE PROSECUTOR (TSRP)

Is usually a current or former prosecutor who provides training, education and technical support to traffic crimes prosecutors and law enforcement agencies throughout their state. For the contact information of your TSRP go to:

www.ndaa.org/apri/programs/traffic/legal_issues_resources.html

VALID

Conforming to accepted principles.Producing accurate and reliable results.

VALIDATED

A documented act of demonstrating that a procedure, process, and/or activity will consistently lead to accurate and reliable results.

VEHICLE IN MOTION

The first phase in the DWI detection process.In this phase the officer observes the vehicle in operation, determines whether to stop the vehicle, and observes the stopping sequence.

VERTICAL GAZE NYSTAGMUS

An involuntaryjerking of the eyes (up-and-down) which occurs as the eyes are held at maximum elevation. The jerking should be distinct and sustained.

VOIR DIRE

A French expression literally meaning to see, to say.Loosely, this would be rendered in English as To seek the truth, or to call it as you see it. In a law or court context, one application of voir dire is to question a witness to assess his or her qualifications to be considered an expert in some matter pending before the court.

VOLUNTARY NERVE

A motor nerve that carries messages to a muscle that we consciously control.

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